The bibliography includes papers belonging to the following metaheuristics:
- Ant Programming. It was the first swarm-based technique for evolving computer programs, and uses ant colony optimization as the search technique.
- Particle Swarm Programming. The automated construction of programs is inspired in the sociological behavior of birds flocks when flying. Thus, the search technique used in this case is particle swarm optimization.
- Bee Swarm Programming. It stands for those automatic programming techniques having a bee swarm intelligence algorithm as the search technique.
- Artificial Fish Swarm Programming. It focuses on the application of artificial fish swarm optimization for evolving computer programs.
- Herd Programming. It is the automatic construction of programs inspired by herd movements.